A Rapid Assessment of Septage Management in Asia

Focus Area: 
Septage Management
Asia Regional

A Rapid Assessment of Septage Management in Asia
Policies and Practices in India, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Vietnam

by USAID and the Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology

This report comprehensively documents the state of septage management for onsite sanitation systems, the main form of urban sanitation in many Asian cities. It provides a regional analysis of key challenges and existing good practices related to septage management, and highlights strategies through which governments, water and wastewater operators, and development assistance agencies can promote sustainable management practices. The key finding is that most countries neglect septage management, which results in significant urban water, environmental and public health damages. Nevertheless, a number of countries and cities in the region have established model regulations, treatment facilities and supporting programs that can be disseminated to catalyze replication.


Complete Report (PDF)5.91 MB
Executive Summary (PDF)36.22 KB
Regional Overview, Challenges, and Recommendations (PDF)1.55 MB
India Country Assessment (PDF)710.48 KB
Indonesia Country Assessment (PDF)514.69 KB
Malaysia Country Assessment (PDF)528.48 KB
Philippines Country Assessment (PDF)563.86 KB
Sri Lanka Country Assessment (PDF)664.58 KB
Thailand Country Assessment (PDF)717.79 KB
Vietnam Country Assessment (PDF)613.55 KB